如何做好高中英语阅读理解

 时间:2020-04-23  贡献者:春雨

导读:高中英语阅读理解怎么做,如何做好高中阅读理解一、阅读最基本的要素——词汇 词汇是一点点积累起来的,从现在开始一直到高考,每天按照自己的情况去定量背单词,也可以每天保持一小段时间的泛读,

高中英语阅读理解怎么做
高中英语阅读理解怎么做

如何做好高中阅读理解一、阅读最基本的要素——词汇 词汇是一点点积累起来的,从现在开始一直到高考,每天按照自己的情况去定量背单词,也可以每天保持一小段时间的泛读,是活跃英文思维、积累词汇的最好方式之一,这个时间 可以是早晨、午休、甚至是睡前。

不要去执着于读了多久或读懂多少,只要明确一点,即读 了就比没读好。

二、阅读最重要的原则——顺序“顺序”原则,即出题的顺序和行文顺序基本一致。

阅读理解的题型无外乎三四大题型: 细节理解题、推理判断题、主旨大意题、词义猜测题,但不论哪种题型出题的顺序一般都遵 循“顺序”原则。

(1)细节理解题 1)直接细节题:此类题是对原文直接信息的考察,只要理解字面意思即可答题。

2)间接细节题:此类题往往不能直接找到答案,需要对信息进行加工处理,简单归纳、 概括才能答题。

3)是非判断题:此类题型有两种形式:三对一错或三错一对。

一般情况下此类题中出 现 all, never, only 等完全肯或完全否定的词时,及排除。

4)排列顺序题:此类题一般在选项中列举一些具体的事实,然后让考生进行排序,做 这类型题根据事情的发生的先后顺序或时间顺序以及句子间的逻辑关系。

5)图文匹配题:这类型的题比较简单,因为它增加了试题的直观性,此类题分两种: 一是依文选图;二是依图选文。

6)数字计算题:此类题会涉及年代、人物年龄、需付钱数等计算。

做这类型题,把文 中出现的数字全都做上标记,找出相关计算方式计算即可得出答案。

(2)推理判断题(要求精读文章) 1)细节推断题:通过文章的字面意思领悟作者的言外之意和文章的真正含义。

这类题 得精读文章,理解文章真正含义。

2)态度倾向题:这类题得通过理解文章基础上判断。

3)篇章结构题:这类题型要求考生必须对文章结构、作者的写作思路掌握。

4)写作方法题:要求必须知道一些写作方法的英文写法。

比如举例子、下定义、对比 等。

(3)主旨大意题 1)段落大意题和文章大意题:概括、归纳文章大意。

此类题学生要学会一“找”;二“概括”找文首、文尾、文首和文尾、文中、段首、短尾、段首和短尾;利用找到的 信息进行归纳概括。

2)写作意图题:在理解文章大意基础上判断作者写作意图。

主要还是理解文章主旨大 意。

3)标题归纳题:选标题切记不能太大,即与主旨大意里的远,显得空洞。

;不能太小,即标题只含有文章部分内容,不全面。

(4)词义猜测题 1)代词猜测:此类题在词义猜测题中是属于简单题型,只要结合上下文理解代词所指代的对象是谁即可。

2)熟词语境义:此类型题词语均是大纲词汇,只是要结合上下文理解在语境中的意思。

3)超纲生词:此类题是词义猜测题中较难的,需要考生对文章理解的基础上猜测生词的意义,要求考生词汇量要丰富。

通过构词,语法,定义,同位,对比,因果, 常识,上下文等线索确定词义。

三、读理解的解题核心——定位 “定位”即每一道题我们在原文中都能找到它出现的位置。

但怎么准确的定位是我们学 习的关键。

(1)先读问题,了解问了“什么”。

(2)读问题,找出问题关键词。

(3)文中定位。

(4)根据定位句解题,如果定位句不够全面,就结合段落中心句,定位句的上句加下 句,组成解题“黄金三角区”进行解题。

总结:正确选项一定要“定位”到原文,有“对应”,有“改写”;而错误选项则是“定位” 错误、“无中生有”、“拼凑细节”、“偷换概念”、“扩大范围”和“凭借常识”。

1、掌握高中英语阅读理解解题技巧; 2、熟悉细节理解、推理判断、猜测词义、观点态度、主旨大意等阅读理解的基本题型。

(1)Your glasses may someday replace your smartphone, andsome New Yorkers are ready for the switch. Some in the city can’t wait to try them on and use themaps and GPS that the futuristic eyewear is likely to include.“I’d use it if I were hanging out with friends at 3 a.m. and going to the bar and wanted to seewhat was open,”said Walter Choo, 40, of Fort Greene.The smartphone-like glasses will likely come out this year and cost between $250 and $600, the Times said, possibly including a variation of augmented(增强的)reality, a technology already available on smartphones and tablets(平板电脑)that overlays information onto the screen aboutone’s surroundings. So, for example, if you were walking down a street, indicators would pop upshowing you the nearest coffee shop or directions could be plotted out and come into view righton the sidewalk in front of you.“As far as a mainstream consumer product, this just isn’t something anybody needs,”saidSam Biddle, who writes for Gizmodo.com. “We’re accustomed to having one thing in our pocketto do all these things,”he added,“and the average consumer isn’t gonna be able to afford another device(装置)that’s hundreds and hundreds of dollars.”9to5Google publisher Seth Weintraub, who has been reporting on the smartphone-like glassessince late last year, said he is confident that this type of wearable device will eventually be ascommon as smartphones.“It’s just like smartphones 10 years ago,” Weintraub said. “A few people started gettingemails on their phones, and people thought that was crazy. Same kind of thing. We see peoplebending their heads to look at their smartphones, and it’s unnatural,” he said. “There’s gonna beimprovements to that, and this a step there.” 【文章大意】作者介绍了一种迷你手机型的眼镜的用途,以及不同的人对它的不同看法。

1.One of the possible functions of the smartphone-like glasses is to.A. program the opening hours of a barB. supply you with a picture of the futureC. provide information about your surroundingsD. update the maps and GPS in your smartphones

【解析】选 C。

细节理解题。

根据第三段的 “...information onto the screen about one’s surroundings.”可知,这种迷你手机型的眼镜有地图和 GPS 装置,可以在屏幕上显示你周围环境 的信息,故答案选 C。

A、D 表述错误;B 项没有提到。

2.The underlined phrase “pop up”in the third paragraph probably means“”.A. develop rapidlyB. get round quicklyC. appear immediatelyD. go over automatically 【解析】选 C。

根据上句可知,这种眼镜的屏幕上会显示你周围环境的信息,因此当你逛街的 时候,指示器会立刻为你指明最近的咖啡馆并绘制方向路线。

3.According to Sam Biddle, the smartphone-like glasses are.A. necessary for teenagersB. attractive to New YorkersC. available to people worldwideD. expensive for average consumers 【解析】选 D。

推理判断题。

根据 Sam Biddle 的话“...be able to afford another device that’s hundreds and hundreds of dollars.”可知,他认为这种眼镜对于普通消费者来说是昂贵的,故答案 选 D。

4.We can learn from the last two paragraphs that the smartphone-like glasses.A. may have a potential marketB. are as common as smartphonesC. are popular among young adultsD. will be improved by a new technology 【解析】选 A。

段落大意题。

最后两段是用 Weintraub 的观点来说明这种手机将会有很大的 市场。

B、C 项还没有实现;D 项没有提及。

(2)You can’t always predict a heavy rain or remember your umbrella. But designer MikhailBelyaev doesn’t think that forgetting to check the weather forecast before heading out shouldresult in you getting wet. That’s why he created Lampbrella, a lamp post with its own rain-sensingumbrella.The designer says he came up with the idea after watching people get wet on streets in Russia.“Once, I was driving on a central Saint Petersburg street and saw the street lamps lighting up people trying to hide from the rain. I thought it would be appropriate to have a canopy(伞篷)builtinto a street lamp.”he said.The Lampbrella is a standard-looking street lamp fitted with an umbrella canopy. It has a

built-in electric motor which can open or close the umbrella on demand. Sensors(传感器)then ensure that the umbrella offers pedestrians shelter whenever it starts raining.In addition to the rain sensor, there’s also a 360°motion sensor on the fiberglass street lamp which detects whether anyone is using the Lampbrella. After three minutes of not being used the canopy is closed.According to the designer, the Lampbrella would move at a relatively low speed, so as not to cause harm to the pedestrians. Besides, it would be grounded to protect from possible lightning strike. Each Lampbrella would offer enough shelter for several people. Being installed(安装)at 2 metres off the ground, it would only be a danger for the tallest of pedestrians.While there are no plans to take the Lampbrella into production, Belyaev says he recently introduced his creation to one Moscow Department, and insists his creation could be installed on any street where a lot of people walk but there are no canopies to provide shelter. 【文章大意】本文是一篇科技说明文, 主要介绍了设计师 Belyaev 的一项创造 Lampbrella 及 它的工作原理、安全性、应用前景等方面的知识。

1. For what purpose did Belyaev create the Lampbrella?A. To predict a heavy rain. B. To check the weather forecast. C. To protect people from the rain. D. To remind people to take an umbrella. 【解析】选 C。

细节理解题。

根据第一段第二句和第三句...Belyaev doesn’t think that forgetting to check the weather forecast....That’s why he created Lampbrella.可知他创造 Lampbrella 的目的 是为了防止人们被雨淋, 所以选 C。

2. What do we know from Belyaev’s words in Paragraph 2? A. His creation was inspired by an experience. B. It rains a lot in the city of Saint Petersburg. C. Street lamps are protected by canopies. D. He enjoyed taking walks in the rain. 【解析】选 A。

推理判断题。

根据第二段可知他的这种想法是在看到俄罗斯圣彼得堡一个中 心街道上人们被雨淋时产生的。

所以选 A。

3. Which of the following shows how the Lampbrella works? A. motor→canopy→sensors B. sensors→motor→canopy C. motor→sensors→canopy D. canopy→motor→sensors 【解析】选 B。

推理判断题。

根据第三段, 这种 Lampbrella 是一个被配备了伞篷(canopy)的

路灯杆, 它有一个内置的电动机(electric motor)和几个传感器(sensors), 可以在下雨时给行人 提供保护。

首先是传感器感知有雨, 然后通过电动机给伞篷提供动力。

所以选 B。

4. What does Paragraph 5 mainly tell us about the Lampbrella?A. Its moving speed. B. Its appearance. C. Its installation. D. Its safety. 【解析】选 D。

主旨大意题。

根据本段中的...the Lampbrella would move at a relatively low speed, ...it would be grounded to protect from possible lightning strike.及 Being installed at 2 metres off the ground...可知, 本段主要在强调 Lampbrella 的安全性, 所以选 D。

5. What can be inferred from the last paragraph?A. The designer will open a company to promote his product. B. The Lampbrella could be put into immediate production. C. The designer is confident that his creation is practical. D. The Lampbrella would be put on show in Moscow. 【解析】选 C。

推理判断题。

根据最后一段中的“insists his creation could be installed on any street where...”可知, 他认为自己的产品是很实用的。

而 A、D 两项没提, B 项错在 immediate, 所以选 C。

A Fear may be felt in the heart as well as in the head, according to a study that has found a link between the cycles of a beating heart and the chance of someone feeling fear. Tests on healthy volunteers found that they were more likely to feel a sense of fear at the moment when their hearts are contracting(收缩)and pumping blood around their bodies, compared with the point when the heartbeat is relaxed. Scientists say the results suggest that the heart is able to influence how the brain responds to a fearful event, depending on which point it is at in its regular cycle of contraction and relaxation. Sarah Garfinkel at the Brighton and Sussex Medical School said: “Our study shows for the first time that the way in which we deal with fear is different depending on when we see fearful pictures in relation to our heart.” The study tested 20 healthy volunteers on their reactions to fear as they were shown pictures of fearful faces. Dr Garfinkel said, “The study showed that fearful faces are better noticed when the heart is pumping than when it is relaxed. Thus our hearts can also affect what we see and what we don’t see—and guide whether we see fear.” To further understand this relationship, the scientists also used a brain scanner(扫描仪)to show how the brain influences the way the heart changes a person’s feeling of fear.

“We have found an important mechanism by which the heart and brain‘speak’to each other tochange our feelings and reduce fear, ”Dr Garfinkel said.“We hope that by increasing our understanding about how fear is dealt with and ways that itcould be reduced, we may be able to develop more successful treatments for anxiety disorders,and also for those who may be suffering from serious stress disorder.”1. What is the finding of the study?A. One’s heart affects how he feels fear.B. Fear is a result of one’s relaxed heartbeat.C. Fear has something to do with one’s health.D. One’s fast heartbeats are likely to cause fear.2.The study was carried out by analyzing.A. volunteers’ heartbeats when they saw terrible picturesB. the time volunteers saw fearful pictures and their health conditionsC. volunteers’ reactions to horrible pictures and data from their brain scansD. different pictures shown to volunteers and their heart-brain communication3. Which of the following is closest in meaning to“mechanism”in Paragraph 6?A. Order.B. System. C. Machine.D. Treatment.4.This study may contribute to.A. treating anxiety and stress betterB. explaining the cycle of fear and anxietyC. finding the key to the heart-brain communicationD. understanding different fears in our hearts and headsKeys: 1----4. ACBABNot all bodies of water are so evidently alive as the Atlantic Ocean, an S-shaped body ofwater covering 33 million square miles. The Atlantic has, in a sense, replaced the Mediterraneanas the inland sea of Western civilization. Unlike real inland seas, which seem strangely still, theAtlantic is rich in oceanic liveliness. It is perhaps not surprising that its vitality has been muchwritten about by ancient poets.“Storm at Sea”, a short poem written around 700, is generally regarded as one of mankind’searliest artistic representations of the Atlantic.When the wind is from the westAll the waves that cannot restTo the east must thunder onWhere the bright tree of the sun

Is rooted in the ocean’s breast.As the poem suggests, the Atlantic is never dead and dull. It is an ocean that moves, impressivelyand endlessly. It makes all kinds of noise—it is forever thundering, boiling, crashing, andwhistling.It is easy to imagine the Atlantic trying to draw breath—perhaps not so noticeably out in mid-ocean, but where it meets land, its waters bathing up and down a sandy beach. It mimics(模 仿)nearly perfectly the steady breathing of a living creature. It is filled with symbiotic existences,too; unimaginable quantities of creatures, little and large alike, mix within its depths in a kind ofoceanic harmony, giving to the waters a feeling of heartbeat, a kind of sub-ocean vitality. And ithas a psychology. It has personalities: sometimes peaceful and pleasant, on rare occasions roughand wild; always it is strong and striking.1.Unlike real inland seas, the Atlantic Ocean is.A. always energeticB. lacking in livelinessC. shaped like a squareD. favored by ancient poets2. What is the purpose of using the poem“Storm at Sea”in the passage?A. To describe the movement of the waves.B. To show the strength of the storm.C. To represent the power of the ocean.D. To prove the vastness of the sea.3. What does the underlined word“symbiotic”mean?A. Living together.B. Growing fast.C. Moving harmoniously. D. Breathing peacefully.4.In the last paragraph, the Atlantic is compared to.A. a beautiful and poetic placeB. a flesh and blood personC. a wonderful worldD. a lovely animalKeys: 1----4. ACAB(1) A German study suggests that people who were too optimistic about their future actually faced greater risk of disability or death within 10 years than those pessimists who expected their

future to be worse.The paper, published this March in Psychology and Aging, examined health and welfaresurveys from roughly 40,000 Germans between ages 18 and 96.The surveys were conducted everyyear from 1993 to 2003.Survey respondents(受访者)were asked to estimate their present and future life satisfactionon a scale of 0 to 10,among other questions.The researchers found that young adults (age 18 to 39) routinely overestimated their futurelife satisfaction, while middle-aged adults (age 40 to 64) more accurately predicted how theywould feel in the future. Adults of 65 and older, however, were far more likely to underestimatetheir future life satisfaction. Not only did they feel more satisfied than they thought they would,the older pessimists seemed to suffer a lower ratio(比率)of disability and death for the studyperiod.“We observed that being too optimistic in predicting a better future than actually observedwas associated with a greater risk of disability and a greater risk of death within the followingdecade,” wrote Frieder R.Lang, a professor at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.Lang and his colleagues believed that people who were pessimistic about their future may bemore careful about their actions than people who expected a rosy future.“Seeing a dark future may encourage positive evaluations of the actual self and maycontribute to taking improved precautions(预防措施),”the authors wrote.Surprisingly, compared with those in poor health or who had low incomes, respondents whoenjoyed good health or income were associated with expecting a greater decline. Also, theresearchers said that higher income was related to a greater risk of disability.The authors of the study noted that there were limitations to their conclusions. Illness,medical treatment and personal loss could also have driven health outcomes.However, the researchers said a pattern was clear. “We found that from early to lateadulthood, individuals adapt their expectations of future life satisfaction from optimistic, toaccurate, to pessimistic,” the authors concluded.1. According to the study, who made the most accurate prediction of their future life satisfaction?A. Optimistic adults.B. Middle-aged adults.C. Adults in poor health.D. Adults of lower income.2. Pessimism may be positive in some way because it causes people.A.to fully enjoy their present lifeB.to estimate their contribution accurately

C.to take measures against potential risks D.to value health more highly than wealth 3. How do people of higher income see their future? A. They will earn less money. B. They will become pessimistic. C. They will suffer mental illness. D. They will have less time to enjoy life. 4. What is the clear conclusion of the study? A. Pessimism guarantees chances of survival. B. Good financial condition leads to good health. C. Medical treatment determines health outcomes. D. Expectations of future life satisfaction decline with age. Keys: 1----4. BCAD(2) When international aid is given, steps must be taken to ensure(确保)that the aid reaches the people for whom it is intended. The way to achieve this may not be simple. It is very difficult for a nation to give help directly to people in another nation. The United Nations Organization (UNO) could undertake to direct the distribution of aid. Here however rises the problem of costs. Also tied with this is time. Perhaps the UNO could set up a body of devoted men and women in every country who can speedily distribute aid to victims of floods and earthquakes. More than the help that one nation can give to another during a disaster, it would be more effective to give other forms of help during normal times. A common proverb says, “Give me a fish and I eat for a day, teach me to fish and I eat for a lifetime.”If we follow this wise saying, it would be right to teach people from less developed nations to take care of themselves. For example, a country could share its technology with another. This could be in simple areas like agriculture or in more complex areas like medical and health care or even in building satellites. Even a small country is able to help less developed nations. Sometime what is taken for granted, like the setting up of a water purification plant or the administration of a school, could be useful for countries which are looking about to solve common problems. It does not cost much to share such simple things. Exchange students could be attached for a number of months or years and learn the required craft while on the site. They can then take their knowledge back to their homelands and if necessary come back from time to time to clear doubts or to update themselves. Such aid will be truly helpful and there is no chance of it being temporary or of it falling into the wrong hands. Many countries run extensive courses in all sorts of skills. It will not cost much to include

deserving foreigners in these courses. Besides giving effective help to the countries concerned,there is also the build-up of friendships to consider. Giving direct help by giving materials may beeffective in the short run and must continue to be given in the event of emergencies. However, inthe long run what is really effective would be the sharing of knowledge.1. According to the author, how could international aid reach the victims in time?A. By solving the cost problems.B. By solving the transportation problems.C. By setting up a body of devoted people in every country.D. By relying on the direct distribution of the UNO.2. What does the author try to express in the underlined sentence?A. Providing food is vital.B. Learning to fish is helpful.C. Teaching skills is essential.D. Looking after others is important.3. The second paragraph is developed mainly.A. by exampleB. by processC. by comparisonD. by contrast4. Which aid is likely to fall into the wrong hands?A. A medical team. B. An exchange program.C. A water plant. D. Financial support.5. What can we infer about international aid from the passage?A. It is facing difficulties.B. It is unnecessary during normal times.C. It should be given in the form of materials.D. It has gained support from developed countries.Keys: 1----5. CCADA(1) If a diver surfaces too quickly, he may suffer the bends. Nitrogen(氮)dissolved(溶解)in his blood is suddenly liberated by the reduction of pressure. The consequence, if the bubbles(气泡)accumulate in a joint, is sharp pain and a bent body—thus the name. If the bubbles form in his lungs or his brain, the consequence can be death. Other air-breathing animals also suffer this decompression(减压)sickness if they surface too

fast: whales, for example. And so, long ago, did ichthyosaurs. That these ancient sea animals gotthe bends can be seen from their bones. If bubbles of nitrogen form inside the bone they can cutoff its blood supply. This kills the cells in the bone, and consequently weakens it, sometimes to thepoint of collapse. Fossil(化石)bones that have caved in on themselves are thus a sign that theanimal once had the bends.Bruce Rothschild of the University of Kansas knew all this when he began a study ofichthyosaur bones to find out how widespread the problem was in the past. What he particularlywanted to investigate was how ichthyosaurs adapted to the problem of decompression over the150 million years. To this end, he and his colleagues traveled the world’s natural-history museums,looking at hundreds of ichthyosaurs from the Triassic period and from the later Jurassic andCretaceous periods.When he started, he assumed that signs of the bends would be rarer in younger fossils,reflecting their gradual evolution of measures to deal with decompression. Instead, he wasastonished to discover the opposite. More than 15% of Jurassic and Cretaceous ichthyosaurs hadsuffered the bends before they died, but not a single Triassic specimen(标本)showed evidence ofthat sort of injury.If ichthyosaurs did evolve an anti-decompression means, they clearly did so quickly—and,most strangely, they lost it afterwards. But that is not what Dr. Rothschild thinks happened. Hesuspects it was evolution in other animals that caused the change.Whales that suffer the bends often do so because they have surfaced to escape a predator(捕食动物)such as a large shark. One of the features of Jurassic oceans was an abundance of largesharks and crocodiles, both of which were fond of ichthyosaur lunches. Triassic oceans, bycontrast, were mercifully shark-and crocodile-free. In the Triassic, then, ichthyosaurs were top ofthe food chain. In the Jurassic and Cretaceous, hey were prey(猎物)as well as predator—and oftenhad to make a speedy exit as a result.1. Which of the following is a typical symptom of the bends?A. A twisted body.B. A gradual decrease in blood supply.C. A sudden release of nitrogen in blood.D. A drop in blood pressure.2. The purpose of Rothschild’s study is to see.A. how often ichthyosaurs caught the bendsB. how ichthyosaurs adapted to decompressionC. why ichthyosaurs bent their bodiesD. when ichthyosaurs broke their bones

3. Rothschild’s finding stated in Paragraph 4.A. confirmed his assumptionB. speeded up his research processC. disagreed with his assumptionD. changed his research objectives4. Rothschild might have concluded that ichthyosaurs.A. failed to evolve an anti-decompression meansB. gradually developed measures against the bendsC. died out because of large sharks and crocodilesD. evolved an anti-decompression means but soon lost itKeys: 1----4. ABCA(2)The baby is just one day old and has not yet left hospital. She is quiet but alert(警觉).Twentycentimeters from her face researchers have placed a white card with two black spots on it. Shestares at it carefully. A researcher removes the card and replaces it by another, this time with the spots differently spaced. As the cards change from one to the other, her gaze(凝视)starts to lose itsfocus—until a third, with three black spots, is presented. Her gaze returns; she looks at it for twiceas long as she did at the previous card. Can she tell that the number two is different from three,just 24 hours after coming into the world?Or do newborns simply prefer more to fewer? The same experiment, but with three spotsshown before two, shows the same return of interest when the number of spots changes. Perhaps itis just the newness? When slightly older babies were shown cards with pictures of objects (a comb,a key, an orange and so on), changing the number of objects had an effect separate from changingthe objects themselves. Could it be the pattern that two things make, as opposed to three? Noagain. Babies paid more attention to squares moving randomly on a screen when their numberchanged from two to three, or three to two. The effect even crosses between senses. Babies whowere repeatedly shown two spots became more excited when they then heard three drumbeats thanwhen they heard just two; likewise(同样地)when the researchers started with drumbeats andmoved to spots.1. The experiment described in Paragraph 1 is related to the baby’s.A. sense of hearingB. sense of sightC. sense of touchD. sense of smell2. Babies are sensitive to the change in.

A. the size of cards B. the color of pictures C. the shape of patterns D. the number of objects 3. Why did the researchers test the babies with drumbeats? A. To reduce the difficulty of the experiment. B. To see how babies recognize sounds. C. To carry their experiment further. D. To keep the babies’ interest. 4. Where does this text probably come from? A. Science fiction. B. Children’s literature. C. An advertisement. D. A science report. Keys: 1----4. BDCD